National reserve "Sofiya Kievskaya": geological-geophysical monitoring and its results
© Starostenko V.I., Rybin V.F., Jepo S.P., Zvolskiy S.T.,
Kendzera A.B., Kozhan E.A., Korchagin I.N., Kulik V.V., Levashov S.P.,
Omelchenko V.D., Skalckiy A.S., Chernyi G.I., Bondarenko M.S., Sytnikova V.A.
Enhancement of deformations of many historical monuments caused by human technogenous activity is observed. For monuments of Kiev unfavorable phenomena are the folloving: landslides, subsidences of loessial soils, subsidence of soils during underground building, suffosion, affected by ground water and leakage water flows, earthquakes. Proposed technique of monuments monitoring foresees their engineering inspection and comprehensive studies of environmental conditions, first of all ground ones. The technique has been tested on the objects of the National Reserve "Sofiya Kievskaya". A net of geodesic, hydrogeological and geophysical observations, including seismic ones has been created here representing the objects comprehensively. Geotechnical calculations have been made as well as hydrogeological modeling, and as a whole extensive first stage cycle of monitoring studies has been completed. The most unfavorable factor for Sofiya Kievskaya is possible enhancement of humidity of subsiding loessial sandy loams which are ground basements of monuments. Critical enhancement of loesses humidity may be caused by possible elevation of ground water level and formation of leakage water flows within aeration zone caused by leakage from water supply nets. For perennial inspection of negative processes within a monument environment meteorological and hydrogeophysical station within the reserve territory is suggested to be built together with local net of seismic stations in the territory of the city and its suburbs for studies of local seismic activity.